A man may be able to better assert masculinity by having enjoyable employment that others may covet, rather than a job that no one else would want.

Manhood in the making: cultural concepts of masculinity. 1999. “Men, masculinities and social theory.” in Men, Masculinities and Social Theory, edited by J. Hearn and D. H. Morgan.

Recent exploration also delves into the presence of male peers which researchers have found intensifies the need to project a masculine image (Pallone and Hennessy, 1993; Wilkinson, 1998). An event fit this category if all participants were males.

1994. 1. “Where the boys are.” Youth & Society 29:166-196.

Scoring high on a traditional scale measuring general masculinity is different than scoring high on a scale measuring hegemonic masculinity. Engaging Men: Results of the MenCare+ Gender Justice Program in Indonesia.

Initially, incidents that were one standard deviation away from the mean were included in each category. This suggests that MMPI-2 measures may not be directly measuring the construct of masculinity. Learn about our remote access options. Switching to a more current examination, Miedzian (1991) examines the socialization, peer pressure, media, and military influences that lead to violence being an acceptable behavior in men. A fairly substantial number (40.4%) had either a high school diploma or G.E.D.

Examining the effects of a stable core masculine personality on a given situation is an important endeavor. Hockey night in Canada. Toby, Jackson.

The current investigation focused on high-risk events, future research may wish to further limit the events to separate events in which a “masculinity challenge” occurs.

The sample for the current study is limited only to cases that involve male-on-male events. Hagedorn, John M. 1998. Recent work, however, has suggested that masculinity is an important construct for understanding crime and violence (Messerschmidt, 1993; 1997; 2000; Bowker, 1998, Kimmel and Messner, 2001). The final model contains the created measurement of high risk masculinity containing low traditional outlets and high MMPI-2 scores. London: Unwin Hyman Ltd. Herek, G. 1986. Parsons, Talcott. He hypothesizes that criminal behavior can be used as a resource when other resources are not available for accomplishing masculinity. Using a sample of newly incarcerated offenders in Nebraska, this study analyzes self-report data at the event level to examine the effects of masculine traits on violent and avoided violent situations1 .

Violence, Aggression, and Coercive Actions.

Currie, Eliot.

Masculinity is too often only examined in relation to men. Therefore, if traditional, non-criminal resources are not available, alternative resources, even criminal resources, will be used to accomplish masculine gender (Messerschmidt, 1993). These are all traditional, conventional, examples of how one can “do gender.” It is when these traditional means of demonstrating masculinity are stifled, or do not exist, that violent behavior is most likely to occur (Messerschmidt, 1993:81). Spergel, Irving and Susan Grossman. As an extension of this idea, anthropological literature suggests the number of children a man fathers may play an important role. “Men, Honour Contests and Violence.” in American Society of Criminology.

Lenney, Ellen. Second, additional less appropriate outlets such as number of past sexual partners, number of children, or number of past successful violent encounters may tap into a different way that a man could assert masculinity without the need for violence in the current situation. 1991. A thorough examination of studentized residuals, the leverage statistic, and the DBETA warranted no cause for concern. Axin, William G., Lisa D. Pearce, and Dirgha Ghimire.

McGrath, Robert E., Elizabeth Sapareto, and David L. Pogge. These are the three most common indicators of masculinity, regardless of time or culture. Until recently, there was little consideration given to the concept of masculinity as a tool for understanding men and criminal behaviour.

According to Tedeschi and Felson (1994:197), the preponderance of research indicates that men take more risks than women and this risk-taking behavior is also a feature of masculinity. 1994. Of these inmates, the majority (54.3%) were 30 years of age or less. “Sex roles: the measurement of masculinity.” in Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, edited by J. P. Robinson and P. R. Shaver. The use of aggressive and violent acts can allow men to maintain status in their male group. It should be noted that these are static measures of masculinity. 1960. First, using traditional MMPI-2 measures for masculinity may not tap into true masculine traits and values. 2001.

1995. Of the inmates in the current sample, the majority (68.7%) were 30 years of age or less. Manhood in America : a cultural history. Male Violence. Chesney-Lind, Meda and John M. Hagedorn. Caucasians made up the largest percentage of respondents (58.9%) followed by African Americans (19.9%). Difference of means tests were performed on the two samples, with no significant differences found between the two. The first measure is an additive scale containing traditionally acceptable outlets of masculinity.

https://hecticteachersalevelsociologysite.wordpress.com/scly-4-crime-and-deviance-with-theory-and-methods/social-distribution-of-crime/do-women-commit-less-crime-then-men-or-are-they-just-better-at-getting-away-with-it-gender/why-exactly-do-men-commit-crime-masculinity-theory/. The final hypothesis is that violent situations will be more likely to contain individuals with very masculine characteristics and few acceptable routes for asserting those characteristics. Reiss, Albert J. and Jeffrey A. Roth.

“Trends in female crime: It’s still a man’s world.” in The Criminal Justice System and Women: Offenders, Victims, and Workers, edited by B. Messerschmidt (1993) discusses the use of violence as an alternative when legitimate means for masculine display are unavailable. Second, the use of routes to assert masculinity is an area that has not been frequently examined.