Franks, K. A. Indian colonization in the Cherokee Outlet and western Indian Territory. To what extent did the Cherokee nation change its culture in order to survive within the U.
The truth, as Zinn makes clear here, is that these lands already belonged to Native Americans. The expression “so long as grass shall grow and water run” appears in eight out of nine Confederate States treaties with
However, difficulties experienced during that War with members of the Five Civilized Tribes, i.e., with the Cherokee,
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Although Zinn will often praise the working-class people of the United States, he acknowledges that, at times, they’ve supported some violent and profoundly bigoted policies. have been [back], 12. 2.Zinn showed the impact of the Indian removal by talking about the book Fathers and … Pike had been an early advocate of securing the Indian Territory for the CSA (Abel, 1915, pp. of Nebraska–Lincoln, for their assistance during this project. cede and convey to the United States their entire domain”), followed by the Choctaw and Chickasaw, Creek, and Cherokee (Prucha, 1994, pp. our expert writers, Hi, my name is Jenn At the time (and even today, in history textbooks), the growth of the United States was seen as a glorious event, whereby Americans would be able to explore empty, pristine lands.
Chronicles of Oklahoma 42, 408-420. 206 and 208), had specified this transfer of “a vast, undeveloped, foreign country, equal in size to the entire United States
New York: E. P. Dutton. Jackson bullied and intimidated the Native Americans into leaving their land and going west. Act for the protection of certain Indian tribes. Love Memorial Library, What is particularly sickening is the way that President Van Buren spoke to Congress about it in 1838: “It affords sincere pleasure to apprise the Congress of the entire removal of the Cherokee Nation of Indians to their new homes west of the Mississippi. 9. as long as the grass grows or water runs pdf. These terms (and particularly their offering) were the primary factors among those for which Pike was later reprimanded. the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was designed “to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories, and for RRP € [D] 164.95 / US$ 173.50 / GBP 145.95 * *Prices in US$ apply to orders placed in the Americas only. This is a quote I have heard many times throughout my life.
*Phone: 402-472-4473 With Good Intentions: Quaker Work Among the Pawnees, Otos, and Omahas in the 1870s.
Lincoln, NE 68588[**]. Ratified Indian Treaties, 1722-1869, 1966). After the war, the British left but the Indians remained to continue the defense of their home on the frontier. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Cass thought that Indians shouldn’t be forced to do what they don’t want to do, which meant not leaving America or being pushed off of their land. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. At the same time that Jackson supported the removal of Indians, he remained hugely popular. I am and will protect them and be their friend and father.” (pg.
356-357) itemized twelve CSA appropriations made for the Bureau of Indian Affairs and for addressing
Between 1790 and 1830, the population of the United States tripled. “Capt. When he was Secretary of State he thought that the Indians should just be left alone, but when he became president he changed and kicked the Indians of their land so the people of America would lean more towards him as a President. ” The significance of the phrase “As long as grass grows or water runs” was that Jackson had said this to the Indians. Documents of American Indian Diplomacy: Treaties, Agreements, and Conventions, 1775-1979. A national hero for the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, he became famous for having a few casualties while killing 800 of the 1000 Creeks; what people didn’t realize is his attack at the front failed and Cherokee, “promised governmental friendship if they joined the war, swam the river, came up behind the Creeks, and won the battle for Jackson.” (pg.  Yet by the summer of 1862, and even with all these efforts to secure a better future under a new government, the CSA began (1953a). (1999). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. He felt himself as much a part of it… His homeland was his holy ground…” (pg. Describe evidence Zinn utilizes to assess the views of Lewis Cass vis-a-vis Native American policy. It’s absolutely heartbreaking. Prucha, F. P. (1990). House of Representatives. "My students can't get enough of your charts and their results have gone through the roof." The Confederate States government and the five civilized tribes, part II. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Wright, M. (1986). Your IP: 220.127.116.11 Explain Zinn’s use of irony when describing the Battle of Horseshoe Bend?
Tribal participation was less than enthusiastic and the course of the exchanges difficult: the Seminole finally reached Robinson, W. M. (1941). had been formed upon many boisterous Southern requests. Prices are subject to change without notice. so allocated, with 92% of the total (or $2,052,665.75) earmarked for assurances contained in these contracts. Ratified Indian Treaties, 1722-1869. Similar documents were fashioned with the Creek (the Treaty with the Creeks, 1832); with the Chickasaw (the Treaty with the Chickasaw, 1832); with the Seminole (the Treaty with the Seminole, 1832 and 1833); and with the Cherokee (the Treaty with the Cherokee, 1835). Digitized versions of these two treaty suites — for each of the British and the United States materials — have been created That is, unless you don’t do what he wants you to do, then he might burn your village down. Gibson, R. V. (1977). That phrase "as long as Grass grows or water runs" was to be recalled with bitterness by generations of Indians. Overall, however, the
Laws and Joint Resolutions of the Last Session of the Confederate Congress (November 7, 1864-March 18, 1865) Together with This population expansion occurred at the expense of American Indians. Contrast Thomas Jefferson’s views as Secretary of State concerning Indian policy with those during his presidency. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. The Confederacy: A Guide to the Archives of the Government of the Confederate States of America.
I was surprised to learn that almost every major Indian nation fought with the British in the Revolutionary War. Sorry, but downloading is forbidden on this website. Andrew Jackson remains one of the most celebrated figures in American history (although, partly because of the scholarship of Howard Zinn, and other revisionist historians, Jackson has become much less popular than he was—his likeness was recently taken off the twenty-dollar bill).
Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration. to default under the weight of these immense promises (McNeil, 1964; Franks, 1973). Jackson, like many other American politicians, made agreements with the Native Americans, and then proceeded to violate these agreements.
An analysis of the Confederate treaties with the five civilized tribes. [back], 4. 5. "As Long as Grass Grows or Water Runs" states that Jackson wanted to eliminate Indian tribes from their territory for the whites (pg 97). (1973). Some supported the act, while others refused to comply with it, recognizing it as immoral. 10. 1861. S? Jackson was the shadiest of salesmen, describing how he obtained the treaties that captured land all across the Eastern US: “…we addressed ourselves feelingly to the predominant and governing passion of all Indian tribes, i.e.
(1941, p. 158) offered the possibility that the original act was missing even in the 1860s. Matchette, R. B. The Seminole tribe, based mostly in Florida, refused to cooperate with the military’s eviction policy. After the Revolutionary War, Indian tribes—most of which had fought on the side of the British—continued to war with American colonists. [back], 9. Some Indian tribes also moved without the aid of the army. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Ramsdell, C. W. (1941). Teachers and parents! They're like having in-class notes for every discussion!”, “This is absolutely THE best teacher resource I have ever purchased. He has fought for his countrymen, the squaws and papooses, against white men, who came year after year, to cheat them and take away their lands… Indians are not deceitful. ” The significance of the phrase “As long as grass grows or water runs” was that Jackson had said this to the Indians. such exchanges impeded progress as tribal resistance rose against such removal processes. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. But Jackson had lied to the Indians because there land was still taken. Wright (1986, p. 16) enumerated sixty-seven tribes that were involved in such migrations; her map for the years between 1866 and 1890 illustrates the resulting geographic The sequence began with the Seminole (see Article 3: “In compliance with the desire of the United States to locate other Indians and freedmen thereon, the Seminoles The implementation of the Confederate treaties with the five civilized tribes. Gibson’s statement may be confirmed by the observation of a printing error in Article XVII the Secret Acts of Previous Congresses. Morton, O. [back], 11. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. But Van Buren, thirteen days before Emerson’s letter, sent military, militia and volunteers into Cherokee territory to use whatever force was necessary to facilitate removal. the Proclamations and Treaties Contained in this Volume.” The texts of the nine treaties consummated with the tribes in Indian Why did his views change? He offers fear in their current home and hope in the west. White settlers invaded the land of the Creek Indians, and the federal government did nothing to protect the tribe. NAME: _____ DATE: CHAPTER 7: AS LONG AS GRASS GROWS OR WATER RUNS READING GUIDE Directions: As you read the chapter, answer each question. Zinn’s duty as a historian is to balance out Van Buren’s naiveté and obliviousness with the truth about the Native Americans. the CSA shared with the tribes. was signed on 7 October 1861 at Tahlequah. (1982).
In this moving passage, Zinn contrasts the corny patriotism and idealism of American leadership of the 1830s with the harsh realities of Native American removal. eventually dissolved with Confederate success on the battlefield: the ninth and final “treaty of friendship and alliance” From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Formal treaty making with the tribes ceased on 3 March 1871 (16 Stat.